Donald Trump`s offer to help India and Pakistan resolve the Kashmir issue became a major controversy after India rejected the US president`s claim that Prime Minister Narendra Modi had requested it. As the U.S. government tries to downplay Trump`s remarks by calling the Kashmir issue “bilateral” to “discuss India and Pakistan,” the focus has shifted again to previous “bilateral agreements,” whose 1972 Simla Agreement (or Shimla Agreement), signed by then-Indian and Pakistani Prime Ministers Indira Gandhi and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto , for friendly relations between the two countries. The agreement is the result of the two countries` determination to “end the conflict and confrontation that have so far weighed on their relations.” He designed the steps to be taken to further normalize mutual relations and also defined the principles that should govern their future relations.   Shimla Agreement: July 2, 1972 Lahimla Convention: What is it? The Shimla Agreement was signed on 2 July 1972 by Indira Gandhi, then Indian Prime Minister, and by Pakistani President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, after the 1971 India-Pakistan War that liberated East Pakistan and led to the creation of Bangladesh. Among them, India and Pakistan have decided to abandon the conflict of the past and focus on building lasting friendship, peace and cooperation between them. The Shimla Agreement: Key Principles The Shimla Agreement contains a series of principles agreed by both India and Pakistan, which emphasize respect for sovereignty, territorial integrity, sovereign equality, non-interference in the internal affairs of the other, respect for political independence and unity of the other, and disregard for hostile propaganda. The principles of the Shimla Agreement are:- Mutual commitment to peacefully resolve all issues through direct bilateral approaches.- Build the basis of a cooperative relationship with an emphasis on contacts.- Maintain the inviolability of the line of control in Jammu and Kashmir. Shimla agreement: main features 1.
India and Pakistan have decided to put an end to the conflict and confrontation that have weighed on their relations in the past and to commit to a friendly and harmonious relationship to establish lasting peace in the subcontinent. 2. Both India and Pakistan agreed that relations between the two countries were governed by the principles of the United Nations Charter. 3. The two countries have decided to settle their differences by peaceful means, bilateral means or other means which they have agreed to. 4. Both India and Pakistan agreed to respect the line of control in Jammu and Kashmir, without undermining the recognized position of both sides. They also agreed that neither unilateral attempts at change would be sought, regardless of reciprocal differences and legal interpretations.